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Polarizing Microscopes
in alphabetical order of the maker

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R. Fuess, Steglitz, Berlin
Nikitin-type polarizing microscope (lacquered brass with black enamel finish on the tube and black horseshoe base and arm); this type of instrument was specifically designated to accommodate a universal stage.
Focus by rack-and-pinion mechanism. Circular rotating stage (diameter 9.6 cm) with 360-degree scale and vernier. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube and the focusable Bertrand lens into the upper part. Height 38.5 cm. This instrument misses the polarizer.
Signed "R. Fuess | Steglitz – Berlin | N° 2027", first half 20th century?

R. Fuess, Steglitz, Berlin




Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black enameled iron limb and horseshoe base. Focus by rack and pinion. Circular rotating stage (diameter 10 cm) with 360-degree scale. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with swing out condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube and the Bertrand lens into the upper part. Height 32 cm.
Signed on the body tube "Ernst Leitz | Wetzlar | 113993" (1909).

Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar



Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black enameled brass limb and horseshoe base, in fitted mahogany case with accessories and key.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focusing knob (1/100 mm) on the limb. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with adjustable diaphragm and swing out condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube and the focusable Bertrand lens with adjustable diaphragm into the upper part. 3 objectives in interchangeable centering collars. 5 oculars numbered 1-4 and one unnumbered. 3 compensator plates; , Glimmer 1/4 λ, Gips Rot I Ord and Quarzkeil  1-4 Ord. Height 31 cm. Signed on the body tube "Ernst Leitz | Wetzlar", and serial number "163333", made around 1915, delivered by D.B Kagenaar S , Instrumentenfabriek  Begijnekade 19 Utrecht.

Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar



Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black enameled iron limb and horseshoe base, in fitted mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focusing knob on the limb. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with swing out condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Objectives in interchangeable centering collars. Height 31 cm.
Signed on the body tube "Ernst Leitz | Wetzlar", and serial number "238821", made 1925, delivered 1926. A label on the cover of the box reads "A. GALLENKAMP & Co. LTD. | 19 & 21 | SUN STREET | FINSBURY | LONDON, E.C. "

Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar




Ernst Leitz, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with nickel and black enameled brass limb and tube and iron cast horseshoe base, in fitted mahogany case with accessories and key.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focusing knob on the limb. Circular rotating stage (14 cm diameter) with 360-degree scale and vernier. Polarizer with adjustable diaphragm and swing out condenser lens. Analyzer fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Signed on the body tube "Ernst Leitz | Wetzlar", and serial number "359331" ; made in 1941. On the upper part of the limb stamped Ernst Leitz Wetzlar logo and letters “DRP”. Inventory number 35999 (written with white paint on the base) Made in 1941.





Nachet et Fils, Paris
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) in fitted mahogany case with accessories. The unconventional design was introduced c. 1880 by the Parisian microscope manufacturer and collector Jean-Alfred Nachet (Alfred) as a response to “those microscopes that require the centration of the objective by means of two buttons…”. Harry Rosenbusch’s design did indeed require the centration of the objective to the axis of stage rotation. Nachet eliminated this necessity by coupling the objective and the stage.
Ernest Mallard described the present stand in 1884 as belonging to ‘Nachet’s old model’. It is one of the very first examples of its kind, made between 1878 and 1881. The signature on the base reads: “NACHET ET FILS | 17, rue St. Séverin | Paris”. Height: 39 cm.

Nachet et Fils, Paris




Nachet, Paris
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) in fitted mahogany case with oculars and objectives. Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale and x-y table. The hinged analyzer (Nicol prism) swings into a slot in the body tube.
The mechanical coupling of objective and stage eliminates the necessity for optical centering.
Height 41 cm
Signed on the backpiece: "Nachet à Paris" and marked: "G.P." "53"
Ca. 1910



Nachet, Paris


C. Reichert, Wien
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black enameled iron horseshoe base in mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with swing out condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Interchangeable objectives. Height 36 cm.
Signed on the backpiece "C. REICHERT WIEN", and serial number "40250", made winter 1909-1910.

C. Reichert, Wien




Seibert, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with horseshoe base (black enameled iron) in mahogany case with accessories.
Rough adjustment through a sliding tube and a rear column fine focus. Nicol prism with condenser lens. The analyzer may be mounted on top of the ocular. Height 34 cm.
Signed on the tube "SEIBERT", box numbered "7441", ca. 1895.

Seibert, Wetzlar




Seibert, Wetzlar
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with horseshoe base. Rough adjustment through a sliding tube and a rear column fine focus. Circular rotating stage (diameter: 9.5 cm). Nicol prism with condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube; adjustable Bertrand lens into the upper part. Height 35 cm.
Signed on the tube "SEIBERT". Dated: 1900.

Seibert, Wetzlar




J. Swift & Son, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black lacquered brass limb and base in fitted mahogany case with accessories. Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer on the limb. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. 2 objectives and 3 oculars, a flat and concave mirror, Abbe illuminator with extra lenses and two condensers with Nicol prims polarizer. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Bertrand lens in the body tube. Slits for compensator plates; mica, gypsum, quartz. Double nosepiece. Height max. 40 cm.
Signed on the base "J. SWIFT & SON LONDON", with serial number "11667" on the bottom of the base. ca. 1903-1904.

J. Swift & Son, London




J. Swift & Son, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black lacquered brass limb and black enameled iron horseshoe base in fitted mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Swing out polarizer (Nicol prism). The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Double nosepiece. Height 36 cm.
Signed on the backpiece "J. SWIFT & SON | LONDON", and serial number "17067" that also figures on the cover of the case, early 20th century.

J. Swift & Son, London




J. Swift & Son, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black lacquered brass limb and body tube and black enameled iron horseshoe base in fitted mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Swing out polarizer (Nicol prism) and condenser lens. The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Double nosepiece. Height 35 cm.
Signed on the limb "J. SWIFT & SON | LONDON", and serial number "17726", early 20th century. The instrument was originally made to be used on the Geological Survey of Great Britain.

J. Swift & Son, London




J. Swift & Son, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black lacquered brass limb and black enameled iron base in fitted mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Swing out polarizer (Nicol prism). The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Height 32 cm.
Signed on the base "J. SWIFT & SON | LONDON", with serial number "12413" on the bottom of the base. The cover of the case is signed "UNIVERSITY | OF | LONDON". ca. 1906-1907.

J. Swift & Son, London




Voigt and Hochgesang, Göttingen
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with a distinctive triangular cross section arm. Focus by rack and pinion. Circular rotating stage (diameter 8.6 cm) with 360-degree scale and vernier. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with condenser lens. The rotating analyzer is mounted on the upper part of the body tube. Height 30 cm.
Signed on the body tube "Voigt & Hochgesang | Göttingen | N° 580". Dated: 1878.

Voigt and Hochgesang, Göttingen




Voigt and Hochgesang, Göttingen
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with a distinctive triangular cross section arm. Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage (diameter 8.9 cm) with 360-degree scale and vernier. Polarizer (Nicol prism) with condenser lens. The rotating analyzer is mounted on the upper part of the body tube. Height 36 cm.
Signed on the base "Voigt & Hochgesang | Göttingen". Dated: 1880.

Voigt and Hochgesang, Göttingen




Watson Bros. 4 Pall Mall, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with original accessories in fitted mahogany case. The main frame is of the common "Lister limb" design which has been adapted for petrological use. There is a graduated rotating polarizer carried on a swing out carrier. The standard ocular for no-polarized work is replaced by a rotating analyzer also with a graduated scale.  Quartz and ¼ wave plates are mounted in brass and fit the slot in the main tube. Also supplied with a small lens to fit over the condenser and a disc of calc-spar to fit over the analyzers for stauroscopic use. Signed on foot "Watson Bros. 4 Pall Mall, London, 5159", ca. 1885



Watson Bros. 4 Pall Mall, London




W. Watson & Sons, London
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with black lacquered body tube, black enameled iron limb and horseshoe base, in fitted mahogany case with accessories.
Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focusing knob on the limb. Circular rotating stage with 360-degree scale. Swing out polarizer (Nicol prism). The analyzer (Nicol prism) is fitted on a sliding shoe into the lower part of the body tube. Height 32 cm.
Signed on the body tube "W. Watson & Sons, Ltd | London", and serial number "40247", ca. 1928.

W. Watson & Sons, London




Carl Zeiss, Jena
Polarizing microscope (lacquered brass) with horseshoe base (black enameled iron). Main focus by rack and pinion and fine focus by thumbwheel micrometer. Circular rotating stage (diameter 10 cm) with 360-degree scale. Polarizer (Nicol prism) and swing out condenser lens, under the stage. Height: 32 cm.
Signed on the tube "Carl Zeiss | Iena | N° 6929". Dated: 1884.




Carl Zeiss, Jena